Overview of Pretreatment Methods Employed on Oil Palm Biomass in Producing Value-added Products: A Review

Rushan Diyanilla, Tuan Sherwyn Hamidon, Lisman Suryanegara, Mohd Hazwan Hussin

Abstract


Oil palm biomass is readily available in Malaysia. However, its high lignin content makes it undesirable for further processing. Pretreatment is employed to reduce the amount of lignin. Many resources exist on pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass, but there are few articles specifically on oil palm biomass. Therefore, this review focuses on pretreatment methods for oil palm biomass, comparing their main strengths and limitations. Furthermore, this review tabulates different pretreatment conditions utilized, combinations of pretreatment methods, the resulting yields, and the potential applicability in producing value-added products. Because the main limitation of pretreatment is the formation of toxic compounds such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, this review also discusses chemical detoxification methods for oil palm biomass residues. According to this review, among all types of oil palm biomass, oil palm empty fruit brunch is the most widely studied, and alkaline pretreatment is the most popular of all pretreatment methods. Combination of pretreatment methods is suitable for biomass with greater lignin content, to increase delignification efficiency. Furthermore, a combination of overliming and activated carbon treatment removes the maximum amount of toxic by-products.

Keywords


Oil palm; Cellulose; Lignin; Pretreatment; Detoxification

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