Manufacture of Mikania micrantha Vinegar and Investigation of its Repellent Activity for Forcipomyia taiwana

Suling Liu, Chenghsin Hu, Kuntsung Lu


Crude vinegar was prepared from Mikania micrantha plants using a steel kiln. The ether-extracted vinegar and acidic, phenolic, and neutral fractions were obtained by the partition method. The fundamental properties of crude vinegar, including its fractions applied to repel biting midges (Forcipomyia taiwana), were investigated. Results indicated that the crude vinegar had a moisture content of 91%, Gardner color value of 11.2, a reddish-brown color, specific gravity of 1.0164, pH of 5.36, organic acid content of 2.50%, and soluble tar content of 0.78%. In ether-extracted vinegar of M. micrantha, the acidic component was the major ingredient, followed by the neutral, phenolic, and nitrogenous components. The main organic compounds of the acidic, phenolic, nitrogenous, and neutral components were acetic acid, phenol, 3-pyridinol, and 2-furanmethanol, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the crude vinegar, ether-extracted vinegar, and the phenolic and neutral fractions effectively repelled biting midges, with absolute repellent times of 49, 87, 83, and 99 min, respectively. The repellent activity of ether-extracted vinegar and the phenolic and neutral fractions of M. micrantha vinegar on biting midges was higher than that of a commercial repellent agent (named Dinling) with absolute repellent time of 61 min.


Mikania micrantha; Vinegar; Partition method; Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midges); Repellent activity

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