Exploring the Role of Chemo-mechanical Technique on the Properties of Nanocellulose Isolated from Different Varieties of Rice Bran

Nurul Najihah Ilias, Norazatul Hanim Mohd Rozalli, Mohamad Haafiz Mohamad Kassim

Abstract


Nanocellulose (NC) was isolated from an underutilized agricultural residue, defatted rice bran (DRB), obtained from three major paddy varieties in Malaysia, MARDI Rice (MR): MR 220, MR 219, and MR 297. The DRB was subjected to alkali (NaOH) and bleaching treatments prior to the isolation of NC. The NC from DRB was produced through the acid hydrolysis technique using 55%wt sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with the assistance of ultrasonication. The morphological structure of NC was analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the observation, a needle-like structure was observed for NC 219 while NC 220 and NC 297 showed nano-web structures. All obtained NC dimensions ranged from 183 to 263 nm long and 4.70 to 4.97 nm wide. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of all important compositions for the cellulose of each variety, indicating that the chemical structure of DRB cellulose has not been altered by acid hydrolysis. Particle size distributions portrayed a unimodal graph for NC 220 and NC 219. This comparative study provides an insight into the possibility of using DRB as a potential source of NC. The promising characteristics of NC from MR 219 allowed its application as an emulsifier for stabilizing a solid particle-based emulsion.

Keywords


Food engineering; Rice bran; Cellulose nanocrystals; Nanofibrillated cellulose; Rice varieties

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