Application of Frankincense and Rice Starch as Eco-Friendly Substances for the Resizing of Paper as a Conservation Practice

Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan, Salwa Moustafa Amer Mahmoud, Youssef Ahmed Karam, Shaimaa Mohamed Salah, Sara Yousef Ebrahim, Mahmoud Adel Abdelwahab, Al-Hussein Muhammad Hassan Ahmed, Hayssam M. Ali, Martin Böhm, Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem


Smart, environmentally friendly alternatives, i.e., frankincense and rice starch, are recommended for usage in modern paper conservation processes during the re-sizing process treatments. Different concentrations of frankincense and rice starch were applied to paper samples before and after ageing. Multiple analysis methods were performed to ensure the effectiveness of these materials. Promising results were found, but at varying degrees according to the type and concentration of the materials. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated that the frankincense particles were completely absorbed into the cell walls after ageing. Results indicated that there was no considerable change in pH before and after treatment or ageing; the best results for decreasing the acidity utilized a treatment with a mixture of frankincense and rice starch in a 2 to 1 ratio (F2S1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy illustrated an increased CH2 region and decreased OH stretching as a result of the bonds formed from the starch and crystals formed by frankincense, which agreed with the increased coating and strength of the paper fibers. The total color change values of all the treated samples after ageing were less than 4.5. Frankincense was found to provide strength in supporting wood fibers.


Wood pulp; Paper; Resizing; Ageing; Frankincense; Starch; FTIR; SEM

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