Optimization of Synthesis Conditions for Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Pineapple Leaf Waste using Microwave-Assisted Heating and Its Application as a Food Thickener

Noppadol Panchan, Pattra Wattanapan, Sirada Sungsinchai, Supacharee Roddecha, Peerapan Dittanet, Anusorn Seubsai, Chalida Niamnuy, Sakamon Devahastin


Pineapple leaf waste, with its high cellulose content, can serve as alternative starting material for the production of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). In this study, synthesis conditions of CMC from pineapple leaves via the use of microwave heating were optimized. Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were applied to schedule the experiments and to optimize the synthesis condition, respectively. Preparation of CMC was investigated by varying three factors, namely, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration, monochloroacetic acid (MCA) dose, and etherification time. The process of carboxymethylation was optimized to produce CMC with high degree of substitution (DS). Optimal condition for CMC synthesis was noted to be 50% (w/v) NaOH solution, 8 g of MCA/g cellulose, and etherification time of 16 min; such optimal condition resulted in the maximum DS of 0.78. Synthesized CMC was utilized as a thickener for liquid foods (water, orange juice, milk, and mushroom cream soup) where 2% (w/v) as-synthesized CMC increased the viscosity of the foods and changed their characteristics from thin to nectar-like liquids.


Cellulose; Degree of substitution; Flow behavior; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction; Viscoelastic properties

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