Microwave-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Phyllostachys heterocycla Leaves: Optimization, Mechanism, and Antioxidant Activity in vitro

Jie Xu, Jianjun Wu, Juan Qi, Juan Li, Yongju Liu, Zekai Miao, Guofeng Qiu, Wenke Jia


Flavonoids were extracted from Phyllostachys heterocycla leaves by adopting microwave-assisted extraction technology. Based on the single factor experiment and Plackett-Burman design results, the extraction process of flavonoids was further optimized using the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were as follows: an ethanol concentration of 78.1%, an extraction time of 24.9 min, and a microwave power of 559 W. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of flavonoids was 4.67%, which was in close proximity to the predicted value (4.70%) and higher than the extraction yield from traditional Soxhlet extraction (3.35%). Moreover, the possible extraction mechanisms of these two extraction methods were further derived to explain why the microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids was more efficient compared with traditional Soxhlet extraction. Ultimately, the antioxidant activities in vitro of flavonoids from Phyllostachys heterocycla leaves were evaluated via DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay. The flavonoids from Phyllostachys heterocycla leaves exhibited excellent antioxidant activities in vitro and Phyllostachys heterocycla leaves could be a new natural source for developing antioxidants. Overall, the findings of this research could provide a theoretical reference for the further comprehensive development and utilization of bamboo resources.


Phyllostachys heterocycla leaves; Microwave-assisted extraction; Flavonoids; Antioxidant activity; Extraction mechanism

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