Densification of Wood – Chemical and Structural Changes Due to Ultrasonic and Mechanical Treatment

Oksana Rudak, Štefan Barcík, Pavel Rudak, Vadzim Chayeuski, Peter Koleda


This paper presents the state of the art of wood surface densification method by pressing with ultrasound. The properties of ultrasound and its effects on the structure and properties of wood, as well as ultrasound-induced chemical changes in wood material, are described. The following research results were analyzed: the effects of acoustic cavitation in wood material, plasticization of wood lignin by processing with ultrasound, the influence of ultrasound on the wood anatomical structure, the combined effect of ultrasound and wood pressing, and the sterilization of wood using ultrasonic action. Ultrasound causes conversion of lignin from glassy into a quasi-rubbery state, which facilitates compaction of the workpiece surface. Additionally, under ultrasound, growth and collapse of gas bubbles (cavitation phenomena) occur within a liquid medium of wooden substance accompanied by high local temperatures and production of chemically active radicals. This contributes to the destruction of the former and the formation of new bonds in the wood substance, which is important for increasing the stability of the workpiece size after densification. The conclusions made about the ultrasound can be effectively used for the wood plasticization and about prospects of joint use of wood pressing and ultrasound for wood surface densification.


Surface densification; Wood plasticization; Softening lignin; Pressure with ultrasound; Hardness of wood; Surface quality

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126