Generation of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Cotton Waste and its Properties


  • Wan Yuen Tan Faculty of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • Subash C. B. Gopinath Faculty of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Micro System Technology, Centre of Excellence (CoE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis; Centre for Chemical Biology (CCB), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bayan Lepas, 11900 Penang, Malaysia
  • Periasamy Anbu Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon – 402-751, South Korea
  • Palaniyandi Velusamy Research and Development Wing, Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research (BIHER), Chennai- 600 044, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Ahmad Anas Nagoor Gunny Faculty of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Centre of Excellence for Biomass Utilization, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia;
  • Yeng Chen Department of Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Sreeramanan Subramaniam Centre for Chemical Biology (CCB), School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bayan Lepas, 11900 Penang, Malaysia; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia


Microcrystalline cellulose, Natural fiber, Biopolymer, Acid hydrolysis, Cotton waste


Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is a green material that has widespread applications in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, and other industries because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, and acid-insolubility. In this study, MCC was prepared from cotton waste via alkaline treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Further, the synthesized cotton-based MCC was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Based on these results, the major components were identified as carbon and oxygen. This finding was evidenced by the FTIR analysis, which displayed peak wavenumbers at 3446.9, 2891.1, 1649.5, 1380.1, 1061.2, and 1050 to 1150 cm-1. The surface morphology was also examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and field emission transmission electron microscopy, which showed that the prepared MCC has a smooth surface and a consistent, rod-like shape. In addition, the MCC exhibited the typical diffraction peaks of a crystalline structure of cellulose II at 12.2°, 20°, and 22.03°, which correspond to the diffraction planes of 1-10, 110, and 020, respectively, and had a crystallinity index of 78.7%. Moreover, the prepared MCC had a diameter of 37.8 µm and exhibited good stability with a peak at -76.5 mV. Further, the cotton-based MCC exhibited high thermal stability, as revealed by the TGA.



2023-05-25 — Updated on 2023-06-13



Research Article or Brief Communication