Heterogeneous Phosphotungstate Catalyst Mediated Efficient Alcoholysis of Furfuryl Alcohol into Long-Chain Levulinates
Keywords:Long-chain levulinate, Heterogeneous phosphotungstate, Furfuryl alcohol, Liquid fuel, Biomass
The synthesis of alternative fuels from biomass has emerged to be a vital strategy to maintain sustainable development. Long-chain levulinate esters (LEs) are a class of good biofuel candidates because they have similar structures to biodiesels and superior heating values. The synthesis of long-chain LEs with effective heterogeneous catalysts has always been challenging. In this work, a few heterogeneous phosphotungstate catalysts were facilely prepared, among which the V3+ exchanged phosphotungstic acid catalyst (VPW) was the most active for the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and 1-hexanol into 1-hexyl levulinate (HL). A maximum HL yield of 63% was achieved at 180 °C. The VPW catalyst could be reused without obvious decrement of activity. The system was also applicable to the alcoholysis of FA with other hexanols and 1-octanol into various long-chain LEs.