Intangible Cultural Heritage Complexes in China: Representation and Restoration of Pigmented Reliefs in Kaiping Diaolou
Keywords:World Cultural Heritage Site, Pigments decoration art, Restoration techniques, Raman microscopy, Surface pigments, New material
Restoration techniques were explored for the patterns, materials, and surface pigments of the pigments decoration art of Kaiping Diaolou and Villages, a world cultural heritage site in southern China. Field investigation was supplemented by scanning electron microscopy, microscopic Raman spectroscopy characterization, colorimetric tests, and tensile tests. Materials and concepts for the restoration of the Kaiping Diaolou pigments were analyzed. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the surface pigments display of pigments decorative patterns. The main colors of restoration included green, red, white, and blue. The green color was a mixture of colored copper arsenate minerals. The red color was made of hematite (Fe2O3). White was calcite, and blue was lapis lazuli or synthetic ultramarine. SEM revealed both pigments show similar flake flocculent section morphologies. UV accelerated aging experiments showed that the Ultraviolet absorber and antioxidants effectively inhibited the degradation of the interface matrix. The interface was less prone to cracking. The tension test showed that the bond stress reached a maximum value of 0.193 MPa at a curing temperature of 20 °C under 95% ambient humidity. The results provide strong evidence for pigment restoration in Kaiping Diaolou. This study also provides a scientific reference for the pigment conservation of other architectural decorations from the same historical period.